Canine Coronavirus (CCV) while highly contagious is actually a very mild condition when it occurs alone in dogs. Its been coronavirus is present along with Parvo or another intestinal infection then it becomes a serious risk to a dog’s health. CCV second only to Parvo as a viral cause of diarrhea in puppies. It’s an intestinal disease that specific to canines and it is found in both wild and domestic dogs all over the world.
The disease is been around for decades and most adult domestic dogs have measurable CCV antibody titers, meaning that they were exposed to the virus at some point in their life or vaccinated against it as a puppy and they carried life-long protection after that point.
How it spreads? The coronavirus spreads from dog to dog through exposure to the poop of an infected dog. Infected dogs can shed the virus in feces for up to six months. CCV resides within the upper two-thirds of the small intestine where it replicates itself as well as in local lymph nodes. Stress increases susceptibility to CCV infection, so dogs that are trained extensively or live in order overcrowded environments or unsanitary conditions, or spent time in locations where lots of dogs gather together are obviously at a higher risk. In adult dogs a CCV infection often times has no symptoms at all.
Symptoms: Occasionally, a dog may experience a single episode of vomiting or a few days of explosive diarrhea. There may also be a temporary loss of appetite or depression. Very rarely, there may also be a fever or mild respiratory symptoms.
Cure: Keep CCV patients especially puppies from developing dehydration. Fluid therapy helps adults recover fast. Because CCV is highly contagious, dogs that are symptomatic or have diagnosed with the virus should be immediately isolated from other dogs. It’s also important to keep your dog’s sleeping area clean and hygienic.
Feline Enteric Coronavirus is the ubiquitous parent form of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIPs) virus. It exists all over the world, and they exist in any place where there’s a large number of cats that are congregated together that share litter pans or have people exposure or feces exposure to each other. So, virtually every cattery, every shelter, every kitten foster rescue.
Every dense feral cat population has in it enzootic and endemic feline coronavirus infection. Most kittens are exposed naturally when they’re around 9 weeks of age through exposure to the virus being shed by u to 40 to 60% of the normal healthy cats in the environment. During that initial infection with enteric coronavirus, part of the virus can mutate into a new form. And instead of that virus infecting the intestinal tract, that mutant virus goes into the lymph nodes, and abdomen, and infect macrophages and then create an entirely different type of disease.
How it spreads? Feline coronavirus spreads via the fecal-to-oral route.
Symptoms: Kittens of age 4 to 12 weeks, faces an acute onset of mild enteritis with diarrhea. Feces are soft to fluid and rarely contain mucus and blood.
Cure: The virus is ubiquitous and spreads very efficiently through catteries; thus, prevention may not be practical. The intranasal feline coronavirus vaccine is available but it does not appear to be effective and is not recommended.
Between November 2011 and April 2012, news channels had reported four outbreaks of coronavirus in California, Massachusetts, Texas, and Wisconsin. 161 horses were affected and four died. Similar to the above coronaviruses, this also known to cause intestinal and respiratory illnesses.
Originally found in foals, equine coronavirus affects adult horses. In the last five years, more than 12 outbreaks occurred across the world. Back in 2009, diagnosis took place in adult horses at a remote racetrack in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis found all horses with fevers and some had diarrhea.
How it spreads? Horses spread the virus through their soft, watery feces. When infected one having fever range from 101.5-106°F share space with other horses.
Symptoms: Strains of the virus create localized infections in the respiratory tract or intestinal wall. They develop fatal complications like multiple organ failure or shock.
Cure: After confirmation through using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), isolate ill horses that are shedding the virus in their wastes. Most horses recover in two to four days with the administration of NSAIDs and fluids when the horses are not eating or drinking.